Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center
San Francisco United States
Krippner, Ph.D., is professor of psychology at Saybrook University, and has served as president of the International Association for the Study of Dreams, the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the Parapsychological Association, and two divisions of the American Psychological Association.
University of California, Santa Cruz, and the University of Hawaii
Identifying Spiritual Content in First-Person Reports from Ayahuasca Sessions
Stanley Krippner, Joseph Sulla
There has been little rigorous research on the spiritual content of ayahuasca sessions, despite the tribal use of this herbal concoction and the existence of three Brazilian churches in which ayahuasca is considered a sacrament. The Casto Spirituality Scoring System, a reliable measure designed to identify spiritual content in dream reports, was utilized to answer the following question: "Is it possible to identify spiritual content in ayahuasca reports?" This system was found to be feasible in identifying "spiritual objects," "spiritual characters," "spiritual settings," "spiritual activities," "spiritual emotions," and "spiritual experiences" in ayahuasca reports taken from pertinent literature. The Casto system defines "spiritual" as one's focus on, and/or reverence, openness, and connectedness to something of significance believed to be beyond one's full understanding and/or individual existence.