DOI: 10.14704/nq.2013.11.3.682

Biological Memories and Agents as Quantum Collectives

Subhash Kak


Quantum mechanical models have been proposed for biological processes and for cognition and decision in domains that appear to be beyond the de Broglie wavelength. The basis of such quantum behavior is seen variously as quantum fields and virtual and entangled particles, and the determination that the behavior is quantum is made on coherence, order and interference effects, and non-local behavior. This paper proposes that biological memories and cognitive agents are collectives of quantum objects. Statistical and informational properties of the collectives that need to be taken into consideration are identified. Issues related to mapping of collectives into various energy states and resistance to noise are examined.

NeuroQuantology | September 2013 | Volume 11 | Issue 3 | Page 391-398


cognition; information; learning models; neuroscience; quantum theory

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


Barbieri M. Is the cell a semiotic system? In M. Barbieri (Ed.) Introduction to biosemiotics (pp. 179-207). Springer, The Netherlands, 2008.

Briggs JS & Eisfeld A. Equivalence of quantum and classical coherence in electronic energy transfer. Phys Rev E 2011; 83: 051911–051914.

Busemeyer JR and Bruza PD. Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012.

Collini E, Wong CY, Wilk KE, Curmi PM, Brumer P, Scholes GD. Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature. Nature 2010; 463: 644–648.

Cowan N. The magic number 4 in short term memory: a reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2000; 24: 87-125.

Freeman W and Vitiello G. Nonlinear brain dynamics as macroscopic manifestation of underlying many-body dynamics. Physics of Life Reviews 2006; 3: 93-118.

Fröhlich H. Long range coherence and energy storage in biological systems. Int J Quantum Chemistry 1968; 2: 641-649.

Gautam A and Kak S. Symbols, meaning, and origins of mind. Biosemiotics 2013; 6: In press.

Gray HB & Winkler JR. Long-range electron transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 3534–3539.

Hameroff S and Penrose R. Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections. NeuroQuantology 2003; 1: 10-35.

Haven E and Khrennikov AY. Quantum Social Science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013.

Inoue S, Matsuzawa T. Working memory of numerals in chimpanzees. Current Biology 2007; 17: R1004- 1005.

Ishizaki A, Calhoun TR, Schlau-Cohen GS & Fleming GR. Quantum coherence and its interplay with protein environments in photosynthetic electronic energy transfer. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2010; 12: 7319–7337.

Jibu M, Pribram KH and Yasue K. From conscious experience to memory storage and retrieval: the role of quantum brain dynamics and boson condensation of evanescent photons. Int J Mod Phys B 1996; 10: 1735-1754.

Kak S. Quantum neural computing. In Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, vol. 94, P. Hawkes (editor). Academic Press, 259-313, 1995.

Kak S. The three languages of the brain: quantum, reorganizational, and associative. In Learning as Self-Organization, K. Pribram and J. King (editors). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 185-219, 1996.

Kak S. Active agents, intelligence, and quantum computing. Information Sciences 2000; 128: 1-17.

Kak S. Quantum information and entropy. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 2007; 46: 860-876.

Kak S. Another look at quantum neural computing. 2009. arXiv:0908.3148

Kak S. Information and learning in neural systems. NeuroQuantology 2011; 9: 393-401.

Kak S. Hidden order and the origin of complex structures. In Origin(s) of Design in Nature. L. Swan, R. Gordon and J. Seckbach, (editors). Springer, Dordrecht, 643-652, 2012.

Khrennikov AY. Ubiquitous Quantum Structure: From Psychology to Finance. Springer, Berlin, 2010.

Lambert, N. et al., Quantum biology. Nature Physics 2013; 9: 10–18.

Li M and Vitanyi P. An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and its Applications, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997.

Matsuzawa T. Evolution of the brain and social behavior in chimpanzees. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2013; 23: 443–449.

Miller WH. Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence? J Chem Phys 2012; 136: 210901.

Pascual-Leone J. A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget’s developmental stages. Acta Psychologica 1970; 32: 301-345.

Polli D, Altoè P, Weingart O, Spillane KM, Manzoni C, Brida D, Tomasello G, Orlandi G, Kukura P, Mathies RA, Garavelli M, Cerullo G. Conical intersection dynamics of the primary photoisomerization event in vision. Nature 2010; 467: 440–443.

Ricciardi LM and Umezawa H. Brain physics and many-body problems. Kibernetik 1967; 4: 44-48.

Ritz T, Thalau P, Phillips JB, Wiltschko R & Wiltschko W. Resonance effects indicate a radical pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass. Nature 2004; 429, 177–180.

Turin L. A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception. Chem Senses 1996; 21: 773–791.

Van Lint JH. A survey of perfect codes. Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics 1975; 5 (2): 199–224.

Vitiello G. My Double Unveiled. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2001.

Vitiello G. Coherent states, fractals and brain waves. New Mathematics and Natural Computation 2009; 5: 245-264.

Supporting Agencies

This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation grant CNS-1117068.

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019