DOI: 10.14704/nq.2016.14.2.951

Creation, its Processes, and Significance: Samkhya - Evolution and Involution

Pratibha Gramann


Science, religions, and cultural traditions develop theories and creative descriptions about the origin of the universe and meaning of life. These theories have both similarities and differences regarding the cause and effect of creation, and life as human beings know it. Religions and cultural traditions primarily adhere to a personal God as creator and ruler. Science has gone in the opposite direction of denying the existence of a God. A definitive cause of creation has not been scientifically found. Science may find a comparable, suitable match in the ancient thought of Samkhya, written in the 500-800 BCE era. Samkhya is probably the first complete philosophical description of the origin and evolution of creation. The three basic energetics of Samkhya are comparable to the basic energies of physics (i.e., light, kinetic, and mass). This paper addresses the hypothesis that the evolution and origin of creation stem from the 3 energetic gunas (i.e., light, motion, and inertia) that make-up what is referred to as Materiality/Nature prakrit that is described in Samkhya thought.


Samkhya; guna; light; action; inertia; ego; intellect; senses; principles; consciousness; materiality; universal/cosmic mind; Mahat; evolutes

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


Aranya Hariharananda Samkhya-Yogacharya SW. Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali. (4th ed.) New York: State University of New York, 1983.

Gasseholm P. A Comprehensive Senior Project, California Polytechnic University, California , 2012.

Gramann P. An exploration of the effects of pranayam breath procedures on work, relationships, health, and spirituality. Saybrook University, [dissertation], 2012.

Gramann P. Cosciousness, Free Will, and Transformation: Research and Science Today 2014., 2/2015

Larson G. James and Bhattacharya, Ram Shankar, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, vol.4. Samkhya: A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987.

Larson G. James, Classical Samkya. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1969/2014.

Rao K. Ramakrishna, Consciousness Studies: Cross Cultural Perspectives. North Carolina: McFarland, 2002.

Rao K. Ramakrishna, Handbook of Indian Psychology. Delhi: Cambridge University Press India, 2008.

Tse P. The Neural Basis of Free Will: Criterial Causation. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Virupakshananda, Swami, Samkhya Karika of Isvara Krsna. Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math, 2006.

VandenBos GR. (Ed.). APA college dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009.

Supporting Agencies

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019