Home About Login Current Archives Announcements Editorial Board
Submit Now For Authors Call for Submissions Statistics Contact
Home > Archives > Volume 17, No 10 (2019) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2019.17.10.2575

Identification of the Factors Predicting the Stretching Exercise Behavior Among Office Employees with Reinforcing and Developing the Performance of the Health Promotion Model

Mohammad Hossien Delshad, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Fatemeh Pourhaji


Musculoskeletal Diseases (MSDs) is the most common occupational health problem affecting work and each day in workplace employees which are growing in Iran. This study aimed to Identification of the factors predicting the Stretching Exercise (SE) Behavior among Office employees with reinforcing and developing the performance of the Health Promotion Model (DHPM) in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS) of Iran. This cross-sectional study, data were collected a questionnaire-based on HPM for SE behaviors and Self Regulation, Counter-conditioning, and Stimulus control questionnaire (DHPM) From eligible 430 office employees working in comprehensive service centers for urban-rural health affiliated to SBUMS, selected by Multistage cluster sampling from May to Sep 2017. All structures were examined as predicting factors to decide whether or not they affect the likelihood of the prevalence of SE behavior. The data were analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis the method by Amos software 22 and regression analysis with SPSS 19 software. Totally 420 office employees with mean age of 37.1±8.03 years old took part in the study. The effects of the validity of two versions of HPM (RMSEA= 0.067, x2/df=2.98, GFI&CFI=0.90) and DHPM in confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that ï¬tness Indexes of the DHPM (RMSEA= 0.059, x2/df=2.38, GFI&CFI=0.98) were better. Regression analysis reflected that the coverage ratio of SE behavior variance of the DHPM is more than the HPM. This study showed that perceived barriers to action could prevent the studied participants from engaging in stretching exercise. Perceived self-efficacy, Commitment to a plan of action, interpersonal influences, and Stimulus control were significant predictors for SE behavior.


health promotion, exercises, musculoskeletal, sedentary lifestyle, occupational health

Full Text



Alaviani M, Khosravan S, Alami A, Moshki M. The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Program on Developing Social Behaviors Based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Prevent Loneliness of Old Women Referred to Gonabad Urban Health Centers. International journal of community-based nursing and midwifery 2015; 3(2): 132.

Asih S, Neblett R, Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ. Does the Length of Disability between Injury and Functional Restoration Program Entry Affect Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Chronic Disabling Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders? Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2018; 28(1): 57-67.

Bach DR, Dayan P. Algorithms for survival: a comparative perspective on emotions. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2017; 18(5): 311-319.

Brooks JM, Iwanaga K, Chiu C-Y, Cotton BP, Deiches J, Morrison B, et al. Relationships between self-determination theory and theory of planned behavior applied to physical activity and exercise behavior in chronic pain. Psychology, health & medicine 2017; 22(7): 814-822.

Buckley J, Cohen JD, Kramer AF, McAuley E, Mullen SP. Cognitive control in the self-regulation of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Frontiers in human neuroscience 2014; 8: 747.

Cabanâ€Martinez AJ, Lowe KA, Herrick R, Kenwood C, Gagne JJ, Becker JF, et al. Construction workers working in musculoskeletal pain and engaging in leisureâ€time physical activity: Findings from a mixedâ€methods pilot study. American journal of industrial medicine 2014; 57(7): 819-825.

Cardinal BJ, Kosma M. Self-efficacy and the stages and processes of change associated with adopting and maintaining muscular fitness-promoting behaviors. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2004; 75(2): 186-196.

Chenary R, Noroozi A, Tavafian SS, Firoozabadi MS. Effective Factors on Health-Promoting Lifestyle Among Iranian Chemical Veterans in 2014 Based on Health Promotion Model: A Path Analysis. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2016.

Delshad M, Tavafian S, Kazemnejad A. Determinants of Stretching Exercise Behavior among Office Employees using Health Promotion Model with Added Constructs. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci 2019; 18(02): 152-9.

Foxall G (2017). Advanced Introduction to Consumer Behavior Analysis: Edward Elgar Publishing 2017.

Gasibat Q, Simbak NB, Aziz AA, Petridis L, Tróznai Z. Stretching exercises to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A review article. AJSSM 2017; 5(2): 27-37.

Gerber M, Mallett C, Pühse U. Beyond intentional processes: The role of action and coping planning in explaining exercise behaviour among adolescents. International journal of sport and exercise psychology 2011; 9(3): 209-226.

Ghasemi M, Khoshakhlagh AH, Ghanjal A, Yazdanirad S, Laal F. The impacts of rest breaks and stretching exercises on low back pain among commercial truck drivers in Iran. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics 2018; 1-16.

Ivarsson A, Johnson U, Andersen MB, Tranaeus U, Stenling A, Lindwall M. Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: meta-analyses for prediction and prevention. Sports medicine 2017; 47(2): 353-365.

Kenny DA. Measuring model fit 2014.

Kisner C, Colby LA, Borstad J. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques: Fa Davis. 2017

Laffrey SC. Physical activity among older Mexican American women. Research in nursing & health 2000; 23(5): 383-392.

López-de-Uralde-Villanueva I, Muñoz-García D, Gil-Martínez A, Pardo-Montero J, Muñoz-Plata R, Angulo-Díaz-Parreño S, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of graded activity and graded exposure for chronic nonspecific low back pain. Pain Medicine 2016; 17(1): 172-188.

Luszczynska A, Schwarzer R. Planning and self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of breast self-examination: A longitudinal study on self-regulatory cognitions. Psychology and Health 2003; 18(1): 93-108.

Manaf H. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals. Singapore Med J 2013; 54(10): 581-586.

McEachan RRC, Conner M, Taylor NJ, Lawton RJ. Prospective prediction of health-related behaviours with the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review 2011; 5(2): 97-144.

Mohammed M, Naji FL. Benefits of Exercise Training for Computer-Based Staff: A Meta Analyses. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science 2017; 5(2): 16-23.

Munro BH. Statistical methods for health care research (Vol. 1): lippincott williams & wilkins. 2005.

Delshad MH, Tavafian SS, Kazemnejad A. Designing and psychometric evaluation of Stretching Exercise Influencing Scale (SEIS). BMJ Open 2019; 9: e026565.

Niven A, Hu D. Office workers’ beliefs about reducing sitting time at work: a belief elicitation study. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine 2018; 6(1): 15-29.

Öncü E, Feltz DL, Lirgg CD, Gürbüz B. The examination of the psychometric properties of the Turkish Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports. Acta Gymnica 2018; 48(1): 27-35.

Organization. WHO website. 2015. Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en.

Pain I. IASP Curriculum Outline on Pain for Physical Therapy. Available at: http://www.iasp pain.org/Education/CurriculumDetail.aspx?ItemNumber=2055.

Pender NJ, Murdaugh CL, Parsons MA. Health promotion in nursing practice (forth ed.). 2002.

Pender NJ, Murdaugh CL, Parsons MA. Health promotion in nursing practice. 2015.

Roux L, Pratt M, Tengs TO, Yore MM, Yanagawa TL, Van Den Bos J, et al. Cost effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions. American journal of preventive medicine 2008; 35(6): 578-588.

Saedpanah K, Motamedzade M, Salimi K, Eskandari T, Samaei SE. Physical Risk Factors among Construction Workers by Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) Method. Archives of Occupational Health 2018; 2(1): 56-62.

Searle A, Spink M, Ho A, Chuter V. Exercise interventions for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clinical rehabilitation 2015; 29(12): 1155-1167.

Sharma S, Mukherjee S, Kumar A, Dillon WR. A simulation study to investigate the use of cutoff values for assessing model fit in covariance structure models. Journal of Business Research 2005; 58(7): 935-943.

Shin YH, Hur HK, Pender NJ, Jang HJ, Kim MS. Exercise self-efficacy, exercise benefits and barriers, and commitment to a plan for exercise among Korean women with osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2006; 43(1): 3-10.

Sniehotta FF, Scholz U, Schwarzer R, Fuhrmann B, Kiwus U, Völler H. Long-term effects of two psychological interventions on physical exercise and self-regulation following coronary rehabilitation. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2005; 12(4): 244-255.