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Home > Archives > Volume 16, No 6 (2018) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.6.1460

Does Auditory Distraction Differently Influence the Brainwaves of Novice and Professional Golfers?

Eunji Kim, Jingu Kim, Yujin Kim


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of auditory distraction on golf putting performance and the electroencephalograms of novice and professional golfers. Twenty-six golfers participated in this study. The task was a 3 m golf putt under a non-distraction condition for 25 trials and under an auditory distraction condition for 15 trials. Separate 2 (group) × 2 (condition) × 2 (area) analyses of variance were conducted for absolute errors, variable errors, and theta, alpha, and beta waves. The EEG analysis revealed higher theta, alpha, and beta powers in the auditory distraction condition than in the non-distraction condition. When presented with an auditory distraction during putting, the professionals exhibited higher theta and alpha powers than novices, reflecting better cognitive strategies and focus on the task. It was also found that low beta power was activated in the professionals, while high beta power was observed in the novices under the non-distraction condition, reflecting concentration and increased arousal, respectively. Taken together, there were significant differences in golf putting performance and in cortical activation between professional and novice golfers. Based on these results, expert golfers appear to be less vulnerable to distracting stimuli than novices.


Distraction, Brainwaves, Expert and Novice Golfers

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