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Home > Archives > Volume 18, No 7 (2020) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2020.18.7.NQ20194

Neurodegenerative Change of the Visual Analyzer in Glaucoma

Evgeniy Alekseevich Egorov, Vladimir Nikolaevich Alekseev, Ilmira Rifovna Gazizova, Elena Borisovna Martynova

Abstract

The aim of the research was to explore structural changes changes in the central departments of the visual analyzer for glaucoma. Materials and Methods: mortem examination was carried out in two people's death was not related to diseases of the central nervous system. Far-advanced glaucoma diagnosis was established and verified in life. There have been mortem, morphological and immunohistochemical studies, including a description of the material, morphometry of the optic nerve cells, optic chiasm, lateral geniculate body and visual cortex. Results: Macroscopic examination revealed severe atrophy of the second cranial nerve with the loss of a considerable number of axons and neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Micrography showed the reduction of the cell layer’s thickness of the visual cortex, the puckering of the neurons’ radius and their nuclei’s radius. Examination also revealed grumose, granular cytoplasm, the presence of lipofuscin in vast numbers, which indicates an atrophic process. In either case, neurodegeneration processes were revealed in deceased patients, who suffered from POAG. All levels of the visual analyzer’s central division were involved in the degenerative process; however, the area of the visual cortex in the area of the calcarine fissure was most noticeable. It should be highlighted that in the optic nerve and IV-V layers cortical amyloid plaques were detected and calf. Conclusion: It was established as a result of autopsy that with POAG degenerative changes occur in the retina ganglion cells, fibers of the second cranial nerve, and the tissue of the visual analyzer’s pathways until visual cortex. This indicates a marked neurodegeneration character POAG, which is confirmed by the presence of the generally accepted criteria of neurodegenerative process as astrogliosis and the presence of beta-amyloid accumulation in the cortex and in the optic nerve. This pathology is similar to other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.

Keywords

Open-angle Glaucoma, Neurodegeneration, The Optic Nerve, Chiasm, Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, Visual Cortex, Astrogliosis, Beta-amyloid, Alzheimer's Disease.

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