DOI: 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1066

Word recognition semantic processing defects in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia: An event-related potential study

Enguo Wang, Guangya Zhou, Yanfeng Wang, Haiwei Huang, Yabin Hou, Jinping Liu

Abstract


This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of lexical decision processes in Chinesespeaking dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers in order to understand the neural basis of dyslexia. Eighteen dyslexic children (ages 12~14) and 18 matched control children were tested, and the event-related potentials (ERPs) to real words and pseudo-words were recorded simultaneously with behavioral measures. The results showed that both groups had significantly longer response time for the pseudo-words. Furthermore, overall performance (in terms of lower accuracy and longer response time) was significantly worse among the dyslexic group during the lexical decision task. The differences between the dyslexic and control groups were mainly in the N130, RP, N400, and P600 components. The results suggest that Chinese dyslexic children have semantic processing defects. From a time course point of view, the early stages of processing reflect the Chinese dyslexic children’s morpheme integration and category sorting capacity deficiencies, while the middle stages show their semantic integration difficulties. The later stages of processing show that during semantic processing, decision-making is difficult among these children. Based on Chinese characters and phonetic system similarities, we suggest there are semantic processing defects in Chinese dyslexic children.

Keywords


Word; Pseudo-word; RP; N400; P600; Dyslexia

Full Text:

Full Text PDF

References


Bonte ML, Poelmans H, Blomert L. Deviant neurophysiological responses to phonological regularities in speech in dyslexic children. Neuropsychologia 2007; 45(7): 1427-37.

Breznitz Z. Speed of phonological and orthographic processing as factors in dyslexia: Electrophysiological evidence. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 2003; 129(2): 183-206.

Csepe V, Szücs D, Honbolygó F. Number-word reading as challenging task in dyslexia? An ERP study. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2003; 51(1): 69-83.

David WC, Rourke BP. Learning-disabled brains: A review of the literature. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 2003; 25(7):1011-34.

Dujardin T, Etienne Y, Contentin C, Bernard C, Largy P, Mellier D, Lalonde R, Rebaï M. Behavioral performances in participants with phonological dyslexia and different patterns on the N170 component. Brain and Cognition 2011; 75(2): 91-100.

Helenius P, Uutela K, Hari R. Auditory stream segregation in dyslexic adults. Brain 1999; 122(5): 907-13.

Ho CS, Chan DW, Chung KK, Lee SH, Tsang SM. In search of subtypes of Chinese developmental dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 2007; 97(1): 61-83.

Hoeks JC, Stowe LA, Doedens G. Seeing words in context: the interaction of lexical and sentence level information during reading. Cognitive Brain Research 2004; 19(1): 59-73.

Ho CS, Chan DW, Lee SH, Tsang SM, Luan VH. Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Cognition 2004; 91(1): 43-75.

Ho CS, Chan DW, Chung KK, Lee SH, Tsang SM. In search of subtypes of Chinese developmental dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 2007; 97(1): 61-83.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10), WHO. (2009). Available at: http:// www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/. Accessed August, 18.

Iglesias A, Martı́n-Loeches M, Hinojosa JA, Casado P, Muñoz F, Fernandez-Frıas C. The recognition potential during sentence presentation: stimulus probability, background stimuli, and SOA. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2004; 52(2): 169-86.

Kim A, Sikos L. Conflict and surrender during sentence processing: An ERP study of syntax-semantics interaction. Brain and Language 2011; 118(1): 15-22.

Kolk HH, Chwilla DJ, Van Herten M, Oor PJ. Structure and limited capacity in verbal working memory: A study with event-related potentials. Brain and Language 2003; 85(1): 1-36.

Kronbichler M, Hutzler F, Wimmer H, Mair A, Staffen W, Ladurner G. The visual word form area and the frequency with which words are encountered: evidence from a parametric fMRI study. Neuroimage 2004; 21(3): 946-53.

Kuperberg GR. Neural mechanisms of language comprehension: Challenges to syntax. Brain Research 2007; 1146: 23-49.

Kuperberg GR, Sitnikova T, Caplan D, Holcomb PJ. Electrophysiological distinctions in processing conceptual relationships within simple sentences. Cognitive Brain Research 2003; 17(1): 117-29.

Kutas M, Federmeier KD. Thirty years and counting: finding meaning in the N400 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Annual Review of Psychology 2011; 62: 621-47.

Kutas M, Hillyard SA. Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science 1980; 207(4427):203-5.

Laasonen M, Service E, Virsu V. Crossmodal temporal order and processing acuity in developmentally dyslexic young adults. Brain and Language 2002; 80(3): 340-54.

Luo JL, Qiu J, Huai ZC, Zhang QL (2008). Sentence processing level in the brain mechanisms of judgment task. Journal of Southwest University (Natural Science Edition), 2008; 30(6): 168-73.

Lyon GR, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA. A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia 2003; 53(1):1-14.

Lv C, Wang Q. Font effects of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters on the N400: Evidence for an orthographic processing view. Brain and Cognition 2012; 80(1): 96-103.

Maganioti AE, Hountala CD, Papageorgiou CC, Kyprianou MA, Rabavilas AD, Capsalis CN. Principal component analysis of the P600 waveform: RF and gender effects. Neuroscience Letters 2010; 478(1): 19-23.

Matthews JA, Wnek GE, Simpson DG, Bowlin GL. Electrospinning of collagen nanofibers. Biomacromolecules 2002; 3(2): 232-8.

Max C, Curtis B, Atkins P, Haller M. Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches Psychological Review; 100(4): 589-608.

Mechelli A, Gorno-Tempini ML, Price CJ. Neuroimaging studies of word and pseudoword reading: consistencies, inconsistencies, and limitations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003; 15(2): 260-71.

Meyler A, Breznitz Z. Visual, auditory and cross‐modal processing of linguistic and nonlinguistic temporal patterns among adult dyslexic readers. Dyslexia 2005; 11(2): 93-115.

Nicolson RI, Fawcett AJ, Dean P. Developmental dyslexia: the cerebellar deficit hypothesis. Trends in Neurosciences 2001; 24(9): 508-11.

Nobre AC, Mccarthy G. Language-related field potentials in the anterior-medial temporal lobe: II. Effects of word type and semantic priming. Journal of Neuroscience 1995; 15(2): 1090-8.

Osterhout L, Holcomb PJ. Event-related brain potentials elicited by syntactic anomaly. Journal of memory and language 1992; 31(6):785-806.

Paulesu E, Démonet JF, Fazio F, McCrory E, Chanoine V, Brunswick N, Cappa SF, Cossu G, Habib M, Frith CD, Frith U. Dyslexia: cultural diversity and biological unity. Science 2001; 291(5511):2165-7.

Perfetti, CA. Psycholinguistics and reading ability. In: Gernsbacher, M.A. (Ed.), Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Academic Press, San Diego, 1994, pp. 849-885.

Price CJ, Wise RJ, Frackowiak RS. Demonstrating the implicit processing of visually presented words and pseudowords. Cerebral Cortex 1996; 6(1): 62-70.

Rudell AP. The recognition potential:a visual response evoked by recognizable images. Neuroscience Abstracts 1990; 16: 106.

Rudell AP. The recognition potential contrasted with the P300. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1991; 60(1): 85-111.

Rudell AP, Hu B. Behavioral and brain wave evidence for automatic processing of orthographically regular letter strings. Brain and Language 2000; 75(2): 137-52.

Shaywitz SE. Dyslexia. New England Journal of Medicine 1998; 338(5): 307-12.

Salmelin R, Helenius P. Functional neuroanatomy of impaired reading in dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading 2004; 8(3): 257-72.

Schacht A, Sommer W, Shmuilovich O, Martíenz PC, Martín-Loeches M. Differential task effects on N400 and P600 elicited by semantic and syntactic violations. PloS One 2014; 9(3): e91226. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091226.

Schulte-Körne G, Bruder J. Clinical neurophysiology of visual and auditory processing in dyslexia: a review. Clinical Neurophysiology 2010; 121(11): 1794-809.

Sereno SC, Rayner K, Posner MI. Establishing a time‐line of word recognition: evidence from eye movements and event‐related potentials. Neuroreport 1998; 9(10): 2195-200.

Shaul S, Arzouan Y, Goldstein A. Brain activity while reading words and pseudo-words: A comparison between dyslexic and fluent readers. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2012; 84(3): 270-6.

Shaywitz BA, Lyon GR, Shaywitz SE. The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in understanding reading and dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology 2006; 30(1): 613-32.

Shu H, McBride-Chang C, Wu S, Liu H. Understanding chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology 2006; 98(1):122-33.

Shu H, Meng X, Chen X, Luan H, Cao F. The subtypes of developmental dyslexia in Chinese: Evidence from three cases. Dyslexia 2005; 11(4): 311-29.

Simos PG, Breier JI, Fletcher JM, Foorman BR, Mouzaki A, Papanicolaou AC. Age-related changes in regional brain activation during phonological decoding and printed word recognition. Developmental Neuropsychology 2001; 19(2): 191-210.

Snowling, M.J. (2000). Dyslexia. 2nd Edn. Oxford: Blackwell.

Spironelli C, Angrilli A. Developmental aspects of automatic word processing: language lateralization of early ERP components in children, young adults and middle-aged subjects. Biological Psychology 2009; 80(1): 35-45.

Stevenson HW, Stigler JW, Lucker GW, Lee SY, Hsu CC, Kitamura S. Reading disabilities: the case of Chinese, Japanese, and English. Child Development. 1982; 53(5): 1164-81.

Shu H, Bai XL, Han ZZ & Bi YC. Lexical Representation and Processing Theory and evidence of cognitive neuropsychology. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology 2003; 9(2): 41- 45.

Shu H, Anderson RC. Role of radical awareness in the character and word acquisition of Chinese children. Reading Research Quarterly 1997; 32(1): 78-89.

Shu H, Meng XZ. Chinese children's reading difficulties Exploration - statistics from dyslexia children. Applied Linguistics 2000; 3:63-69.

Shu H, McBride-Chang C, Wu S, Liu H. Understanding chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2006; 98(1): 122.

Taroyan NA, Nicolson RI. Reading words and pseudowords in dyslexia: ERP and behavioural tests in English-speaking adolescents. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2009; 74(3):199-208.

Wang E, Qin S, Chang M, Zhu X. Digital memory encoding in Chinese dyscalculia: An event-related potential study. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2015; 36: 142-9.

Wang E, Du C, Ma Y. Old/New Effect of Digital Memory Retrieval in Chinese Dyscalculia: Evidence from ERP. Journal of learning disabilities 2015; 50(2): 158-67.

Wang JJ, Bi HY, Gao LQ, Wydell TN. The visual magnocellular pathway in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia. 2010; 48(12): 3627-33.

Weekes BS, Chen MJ, Gang YW. Anomia without dyslexia in Chinese. Neurocase 1997; 3(1): 51-60.

Wimmer H, Hutzler F, Wiener C. Children with dyslexia and right parietal lobe dysfunction: event-related potentials in response to words and pseudowords. Neuroscience Letters; 2002; 331(3): 211-13.

Wu SG, Shu H, Liu YR. Role of children in the morphological awareness of Chinese reading. Psychology and Behavior 2005; 3: 35-38.

Zhou X, Meng X, Chen Y. Brainimaging studies of developmental dyslexia. Chinese journal of neuroscience 2002; 18(2): 568-72.


Supporting Agencies

The Key Laboratory of Henan University was where the cognitive and behavioral studies were completed, the National Natural Science Foundation provided funding (31371051) and the national education scientific planning project (BBA130014) and Henan province



| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2017