DOI: 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1070

Psychometric Properties of the Persian version of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence in Patients with Opioid Use Disorder / Cigarette Smokers Under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

Soleimani Robabeh, Jalali Mir Mohammad, Fallahi Mahnaz, Zamiri Akhlaghi Amir


The purpose of this study was the verification of the usefulness of the Persian version of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in patients with opioid use disorder /cigarette smokers undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. 354 patients with opioid use disorder / cigarette smokers at the Shafa Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences participated in this study and took the Persian version of the FTND. The gold standard was the nicotine dependence criteria of the DSM-5. By DSM-5, 92.1% of smokers were diagnosed as dependent, while only 64% were diagnosed as dependent by FTND. In confirmatory factor analysis of the FTND, our results showed the two-factor solution providing the best fit. Three and four items were loaded on Factor 1 and Factor 2, respectively. One item (time to first cigarette) was load on both factors. After rescoring item 4, model fit showed better absolute fit than original model (χ2/df=1.55, P=0.10). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the FTND was 0.71. This study showed the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the FTND. Our results confirmed the usefulness of the FTND to identify individuals who have the greatest risk for disease and to assess of programs for smoking cessation.


Nicotine dependence; Psychometrics; Fagerstrom; Confirmatory factor analysis; opioid use disorder

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Supporting Agencies

Funding for this study was provided by the Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Iran (grants number 93121101).

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