DOI: 10.14704/nq.2017.15.3.1091

Neurofeedback Training Intervention for Persons with Major Depression Disorder: Reducing Depressive Symptoms

Hao Liu


According to the World Health Organization, 322 million people in the world were depressed in 2015. This study aimed to develop an effective training intervention for minimizing the depressive symptoms in persons with depression disorder. Neurofeedback Training (NT) was tested in a control-group experimental design: immediately after the NT and one week later. Participants were 32 Chinese college students (22 female students; mean age = 22.18). Our experimental study found positive effects of the training intervention on alpha band and depressive symptoms. Overall, NT can protect persons with depression disorder from an increase in depressive symptoms at the stage of depression.


Neurofeedback, Depressive Symptoms, Recurrence of Symptoms, Training Intervention

Full Text:



Adolphs RJ, Tranel D. Emotion in principles and practice of behavioral neurology and neuropsychology. Philadelphia, Saunders; 2004: 451-74.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-Fifth Edition), Arlington, VA: APA press; 2013.

Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio 1996;78(2):490-98.

Beck, Aaron T., ed. Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford press, 1979.

Carter JD, Mclntosh V, Jordan J, Porter RJ, Frampton CM, Joycem PR. Psychotherapy for depression: A randomized clinical trial comparing schema therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders 2011; 151(2): 500-505.

Christopher G, MacDonald J. The impact of clinical depression on working memory. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2005; 10(5): 379–399.

Davidson RJ, Irwin W. The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1999; 3: 11-22.

Davidson RJ. What does the prefrontal cortex "do" in affect: perspectives on frontal EEG asymmetry research. Biological Psychology 2004; 67: 219-23.

Deldin PJ, Chiu P. Cognitive restructuring and EEG in major depression. Biological Psychology 2005; 70: 141-51.

Fröjd SA, Nissinen ES, Pelkonen MU, Marttunen MJ, Koivisto AM, Kaltiala-Heino R. Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescence 2008; 31(4): 485-498.

Gao, W., et al., Margin based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm and applied in biology science. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 2017;24(1):132-138.

Gao, W., et al., The first multiplication atom-bond connectivity index of molecular structures in drugs. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2017; 25(4):548-555.

Gao, W., et al., Characteristics studies of molecular structures in drugs. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2017;25(4): 580-586.

Gotlib IH, Hammen CL. Handbook of depression. A division of Guilford publications, Inc. 2nd. ed; 2009. p3.

Hammond DC. Neurofeedback treatment of depression and anxiety. Journal of Adult Development 2005;12(2):131-7.

Henriques JB, Davidson RJ. Left frontal hypoactivation in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1991;100(4):535.

Jon H, Jonathan E. Negative Self Schema: depressive in women. British Journal of Psychiatry 2005;186: 302-307.

Kaplan D, Sadock J. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry 8th Edtion. United Statees. Lippincott Williams and wilkins. 10. 2006.

Kazdin, ALAN E. Single-case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior change. New York: Oxford University Press; 1982.

Khan, L.M., et al., Dilemmas of the causality assessment tools in the diagnosis of adverse drug reactions. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2016. 24(4): p. 485-493.

Kovacs M, Garrison B. Hopelessness and eventual suicide: a 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. American Journal of Psychiatry 1985;1(42): 559-563.

Kuppusamy, P., et al., Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives and their new avenues in pharmacological applications - An updated report. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016. 24(4): p. 473-484.

Leahy RL, Kaplan D. Emotional schemas and relationship adjustment. Paper presented at the annual meetng of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New Orleans, LA. 2004.

Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. The Lancet 2006;367(9524):1747-57.

Mihăilescu AI, Diaconescu LV, Ciobanu AM, Donisan T, Mihailescu C. The impact of anxiety and depression on academic performance in undergraduate medical students. European Psychiatry 2016;33:S341-2.

Muheem, A., et al., A review on the strategies for oral delivery of proteins and peptides and their clinical perspectives. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016. 24(4): p. 413-428.

Owens M, Stevenson J, Hadwin JA, Norgate R. Anxiety and depression in academic performance: An exploration of the mediating factors of worry and working memory. School Psychology International 2012;33(4), 433-449.

Peeters F, Oehlen M, Ronner J, van Os J, Lousberg R. Neurofeedback as a treatment for major depressive disorder–a pilot study. PloS one 2014;9(3):e91837.

Rosenfeld JP. EEG biofeedback of frontal alpha asymmetry in affective disorders. Biofeedback 1997;25(1):8-25.

Shaman, A.M. and S.R. Kowalski, Hyperphosphatemia Management in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016. 24(4): p. 494-505.

Shanshan LI, Zichao CHEN. Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Dyslexic Students’ Aggression: An Experimental Study. NeuroQuantology 2017;15(2): 269-276.

Sharifi V, Asadi SM, Mohammadi MR, Amini H, Kaviani H, Semnani Y, Shabanikia A, Shahrivar Z, Davari AR, Hakim SM, SEDIGH A, Jalali RM. Reliability and capability of the persian version administration of the structured interview on DSM-IV diagnosis for SCID. Advances in Cognitive Science 2004; 6(1-2): 10-22.

Sterman MB. Physiological origins and functional correlates of EEG rhythmic activities: implications for self-regulation. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 1996;21(1):3-3.

Tan L, Zhang T, Wang Z, Xu B. Application of Beck self-rating depression scale among patients with infertility. Maternal Child Health Care China 2011;26:542-45.

Tenke CE, Kayser J, Manna CG, Fekri S, Kroppmann J. Current source density measure of electroencephalographic alpha predict antidepressant treatment response. Biolpsychiatry 2011; 70: 388-94.

Ustun TB, Ayuso-Mateos JI, Chatterji S, Mathers C. Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000. British Journal of Psychatry 2004;188: 13-20.

Walker J, Lawson R, Kozlowski G. Current status of QEEG and neurofeedback in the treatment of clinical depression. Neurotherapy center of Dallas; 2006; 343.

Wang Z, Yuan C, Huang J, Li ZZ, Chen J, Zhang HY, Fang YR, Xiao ZP. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory-II among depression patients. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2011;25(6):476-80.

Wang, Z. Neurofeedback Training Intervention for Enhancing Working Memory Function in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Chinese Students. NeuroQuantology 2017;15(2): 277-283.

Whisman RC, Miller A. A structured interview version of the hamilton depression: reliability and validity. J Rating Scale for Clinical and Consulting Psychology 1989; 1: 238-241.

Yang WH, Liu S, Zhou J, Peng F, Liu X, Li L, Yang C, Liu H, Yi J. Reliability and validity of Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Chinese adolescents. Chineese Journal of Clinical Psychology 2014;22: 240–245 (In Chinese).

Yang WH, Wu DJ, Peng F. Application of Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory-II to Chinese first-year college students. Chineese Journal of Clinical Psychology 2012;20: 762–764 (In Chinese).

Young K, Siegle G, Zotev V, Drevets W, Bodurka J. 937-EEG Correlates of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Amygdala Training in Depression. Biological Psychiatry 2017;81(10): S379.

Supporting Agencies

Hubei Provincial College Teaching Reform Research Project (No. 2013160)

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019