DOI: 10.14704/nq.2017.15.3.1098

Spark Motor Program to develop Psychomotor Skills in learning disorder Chinese students

Bo Deng


The objective of the present study was to develop an effective motor program for developing speed and agility, bilateral coordination, balance and strength, and developed motor skills of preschool students with learning disorder. The sample consisted of 21 students of male and female from 4 preschool classes in China. We divided participants in two groups: a Spark group (11 students), with a 8-week motor program, and a routine exercise group (10 students). The findings demonstrated that Spark motor program has positive effects during the reading, writing and speaking. Further, we found significant differences between the groups. Motor skills and enjoyed physical activity increased in the Spark group, but not in the routine exercise group. Male students attained more significant differences than female students in the Spark and routine exercise groups. The outcome was that exercise programs such as Spark motor program develop psychomotor skills in students with learning disorder.


Spark Motor Program, Psychomotor Skills, Learning Disorder, Developed Motor Skills

Full Text:



Biotteau M, Chaix Y, Albaret JM. What do we really know about motor learning in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder? Current Developmental Disorders Reports 2016 ;3(2):152-60.

Bruininks Robert H, Brett D. Bruininks. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency [with Student Booklet]. Pearson, Incorporated; 2005.

Bruininks VL, Bruininks RH. Motor proficiency of learning disabled and nondisabled students. Percept Motor Skills 1977; 44:1131-1137.

Bruininks VL. Actual and perceived peer status of learning-disabled students in mainstream programs. The Journal of Special Education 1978;12(1):51-8.

Churchill A. Teaching Nutrition to the Left and Right Brain: An overview of learning styles. Teaching Nutrition in the veterinary sciences. JVME 35 (2) © 2008 AAVMC, 275- 280.

Cao, P.Q., et al., The effect of chitooligosaccharides on oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG(2) cells. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016;24(3): 292-298.

Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, Pratt M, Ekelund UL, Yngve A, Sallis JF, Oja P. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2003;35(8):1381-95.

Glozman Janna M, Sofja M Konina. Prevention of Learning Disability in the Preschool Years. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,2014;146:163-168.

Gao, W., ., Margin based ontology sparse vector learning algorithm and applied in biology science. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 2017; 24(1):132-138.

Ge, Shengbo, Zhenling Liu, et al. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution." Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences,2017; 24(1):127-131.

Heidarabadi, N.N., Safdari, R.S., Marjan G.; et al.,A Review of Developed Information Systems for Pain Management in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Acta Medica Mediterranea, 2017;33(2): 237-243.

Khan, L.M., et al., Dilemmas of the causality assessment tools in the diagnosis of adverse drug reactions. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016;24(4): 485-493.

Kuppusamy, P., et al., Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives and their new avenues in pharmacological applications - An updated report. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016;24(4): 473-484.

Larouche R, Boyer C, Tremblay MS, Longmuir P. Physical fitness, motor skill, and physical activity relationships in grade 4 to 6 children. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 2013;39(5), 553-559.

Li J.J., Ren M., et al., Index Composition Change and Finger-print Chromatography Establishment in the Honeysuckle Processing Course. Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences, 2015,3(1):1-8.

Litt J, Taylor HG, Klein N, Hack M. Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities 2005;38(2):130-41.

Mafra H. Development of learning and social skills in children with learning disabilities: an educational intervention program. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 20015;209:221-228.

Nazari, M., et al., On the Investigation of the Effect of Aromatherapy on Pain after Orthopedic Surgery:Clinical Trial. Acta Medica Mediterranea, 2016;32(4): 1513-1519.

Pan CY, Tsai CL, Chu CH. Fundamental movement skills in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2009; 39(12):1694-1705.

Peng, Wanxi, Shengbo Ge, Zhenling Liu and Yuzo Furuta. Adsorption characteristics of sulfur powder by bamboo charcoal to restrain sulfur allergies. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences,2017; 24(1):103-107.

Rimmer JH, Kelly LE. Research Gross motor development in preschool children with learning disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 2003; 6(3): 268-79.

Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. American journal of public health 1997;87(8):1328-34.

Sanghavi R, Kelkar R. Visual-motor integration and learning disabled children. The Indian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2005;37(2): 33-35.

Shaman, A.M. and S.R. Kowalski, Hyperphosphatemia Management in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2016; 24(4): 494-505.

Soares DB, Porto E, Marco AD, Azoni CAS, Capelatto IV. Influence of the physical activity on motor performance of children with learning difficulties. Revista CEFAC 2015;17(4): 1132-1142.

Solberg PA, Kvamme NH, Raastad T, Ommundsen Y, Tomten SE, Halvari H, Loland NW, Hallén J. Effects of different types of exercise on muscle mass, strength, function and well-being in elderly. European Journal of Sport Science 2013;13(1):112-25.

Tabatabaei SS, Ahadi H, Bahrami H, Khamesan A. The Effects of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) on Students’ Cognitive and Meta-Cognitive Skills. NeuroQuantology 2017;15(2):239-245.

Von Hofsten C. An action perspective on motor development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2004;8(6): 266-272.

Westendorp M, Houwen S, Hartman E, Visscher C. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2011;32(3):1147-53.

Willcutt EG, Boada R, Riddle MW, Chhabildas N, DeFries JC, Pennington BF. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: validation of a parent-report screening measure. Psychological Assessment 2011;23(3):778.

Xiaoxu WE, Xiaoxiang CH, Li HE, Liqun LI. Behavioral Inhibition Improvement Through an Emotional Working Memory (EWM) Training Intervention in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. NeuroQuantology 2017;15(2):261-268.

Zittel LL. Gross motor assessment of preschool children with special needs: Instrument selection considerations. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1994;11(3):245-60.

Supporting Agencies

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019