DOI: 10.14704/nq.2017.15.4.1155

Studying the Relationship between University Students' Anxiety and Depression with Religious Orientation, Quality of Sleep and Emotional Cognitive Adjustment

Ehrampoush Mohammad Hasan, Seyed Ziaeddin Tabei, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Nami, Mehrnoosh Doroudchi, Sedighe Forouhari


Several studies have shown that mental health is positively associated with religious orientation, cognitive-emotional regulation and sleep quality. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between university students' anxiety and depression with religious orientation, quality of sleep and their emotional cognitive adjustment. The statistical population of this study included all students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A total number of 235 students participated in the study. The psychological characteristics of volunteers, including their psychological health, stress level, and sleep/awakening, were measured by interviewing. Beck Anxiety and Depression questionnaire, Granefski's Cognitive Emotion questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Allport and Ross Questionnaire were used to collect required data; collected data was analyzed using Spss-v21, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis. Based on the results of the present study, internal and external religious orientation -accounted for 57-61% of changes in depression variance, 53-54% changes in anxiety variance, 29-38% of changes in sleep quality variance, and 12-14% of changes in emotional cognitive regulation variance. The findings of the present study showed that the more external the religious orientation, the higher the level of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality; additionally, the more internal the religious orientation, the lower the level of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. However, the more internal the religious orientation, the higher the level of emotional cognitive regulation and the more external the religious orientation, the lower the level of emotional cognitive adjustment. Students' mental health promotion depends on their beliefs, their sleep quality and their emotional cognitive configurations. In this regard, it is necessary to pay more attention to the teaching of theoretical, psychological, religious and cognitive principles regarding the quality of students' sleep.


Anxiety, Depression, Sleep disorder, Religious orientation, Cognitive emotion regulation

Full Text:



Ahmadi R, Maleki H, Shafei S, and Habibian, N. Prediction of Purpose in Life Based On Religious Attitude and Self-Efficacy Scores. Jurnal UMP Social Sciences and Technology Management Vol 2015;3(3):540-09.

Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Schweizer S. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical psychology Review 2010;30(2):217-37.

Allport G. W. The person in psychology: Selected essays.1968.

Allport GW. Behavioral science, religion, and mental health. Journal of Religion and Health 1963; 2(3): 187-97.

Amir Hooshang M. Standardization of Beck Test, 2001.

Argyle M, and Beit-Hallahmi B. The psychology of religious behaviour, belief and experience: Routledge, 2014.

Baker M, Gorsuch R. Trait anxiety and intrinsic-extrinsic religiousness. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1982; 119-22.

Bergin AE. Religiosity and mental health: A critical reevaluation and meta-analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 1983;14(2): 170.

Bjorck JP, Thurman JW. Negative life events, patterns of positive and negative religious coping, and psychological functioning. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2007; 46(2), 159-67.

Ellis A. Can rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) be effectively used with people who have devout beliefs in God and religion? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 2000; 31(1): 29.

Forouhari S, Ghaemi S, Tobesaz P, Sharif F. Relation between religious beliefs and mental health among students of Hazrat-e-Fatemeh nursing and midwifery college Shiraz-Iran. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences 2014; 3(2): 1459-62.

Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual differences 2006;40(8): 1659-69.

Gross JJ, Richards JM, John OP. Emotion regulation in everyday life. Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to Dysfunction and Health 2006; 2006:13-35.

Hafeziahmadi MR, Javedani M, Ghiasi B, Samiramis G. Investigation Of The Relationship Between Phase Angle And Micro-Albuminuria In Type 2 Diabetic Patients With A History Of More Than 5 Years Of The Disease In Ilam Province, Iran, Acta Medica Mediterranea 2017, 33: 351-57. DOI: 10.19193/0393-6384_2017_2_052.

Hosseini SMD, Mollazadeh J, Afsar KP, Amini LM. The relationship between attachment styles and religious coping styles with mental health among HIV+ patients, 2012:6-15.

Kaldestad E. The empirical relationships between standardized measures of religiosity and personality/mental health. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 1996;37(2): 205-20.

Khoshtinat VA review on relationship between religion, spirituality, spritual transcendent, spiritual intelligence with religious coping. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 2012;3(9): 1916-34.

Kindler HS. The influence of a meditation relaxation technique on group problem-solving effectiveness. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 1979; 15(4): 527-33.

Koenig H. G. Religion, spirituality, and health: the research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry 2012; Volume 2012, Article ID 278730, 33 pages.

Mahani S. The role of Spirituality in Providing Nurse services and its function ithin the structure of hospitals and health centers. Journal of Medical Ehtics 2016; 2(5): 21-31.

Masrour MJ, Shafaie A, Yoonesi L, Aerabsheibani H, Masrour SJ. Evaluating Endometrial Thickness and Vascular Ultrasound Pattern and Pregnancy Outcomes Inintrauterine Insemination Cycle. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care. 2016;8(S1):24-29.

Mazloomy Mahmoodabad S.S E. M. H, Tabei S.Z, Nami M, Fallahzadeh H, NamavarJahromi B, Shayan A, Forouhari S. Extrinsic or Intrinsic Religious Orientation May Have an Impact on Mental Health. Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2016;10(4): 232-36.

Mokhtari S.The relationship between religious orinetation and psychological obsession. Psychology Journal 2002; 5: 56-67.

Moo-Estrella J, Pérez-Benítez H, Solís-Rodríguez F, Arankowsky-Sandoval G. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students. Archives of Medical Research 2005;36(4):393-8.

Murphy PE, Ciarrocchi JW, Piedmont RL, Cheston S, Peyrot M, Fitchett G. The relation of religious belief and practices, depression, and hopelessness in persons with clinical depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2000;68(6):1102-05.

O’Connor DB, Cobb J, O’Connor RC. Religiosity, stress and psychological distress: No evidence for an association among undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Differences 2003;34(2):211-7.

Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Perez LM. The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2000;56(4):519-43.

Rahmati S, Delpishe A, Azami M, Hafezi Ahmadi MR, Sayehmiri K. Maternal Anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight: A systematic review and Meta-analysis. International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine 2017;15(3):125-34.

Reavley N, Jorm AF. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review. Early intervention in Psychiatry 2010;4(2):132-42.

Richards PS, Bergin AE. Toward religious and spiritual competency for mental health professionals, 2000.

Rodrigues MF, Nardi AE, Levitan M. Mindfulness in mood and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature. Trends in psychiatry and Psychotherapy 2017;39(3):207-15.

Samani S, Jokar B, Sahragard N. Effects of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 2007;13(3): 290-95.

Schieman S, Bierman A, and Ellison C. G. Religion and mental health Handbook of the sociology of mental health, Springer, 2013: 457-78.

Seligman M. E, and Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology: An introduction Flow and the foundations of positive psychology, Springer, 2014: 279-98.

Shahram Mami SHH M. M, Sharareh Hmaad Heidari. The Relationship between Religious Orientation, Self-Actualization, Anxiety and Sleep, Couples Ilam. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences 2014; 4(5): 256-62.

Shreve-Neiger AK, Edelstein BA. Religion and anxiety: A critical review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review 2004;24(4):379-97.

Steer R. A, and Beck A. T. Beck Anxiety Inventory, 1997.

Yousefi F, Mohamadkhani M. Investigation of studentsâ mental health at Kurdistan University of Medical Science and it related with age, gender and their academic courses. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences 2014;56(6):354-61.

Supporting Agencies

The present article is a part of a PhD thesis in Social Determinants of Health Research Center of Shahid Sadoughi University entitled "Factors associated with religious orientation, physical and psychological health and the impact of strengthen perseveran

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019