DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.4.1213

Roles of Mindfulness and Perceived Social Support in Mediating the Effect of Psychological Distress on Sleep Quality of College Students

Hongyan Chen


This paper aims to disclose the role of mindfulness and perceived social support (PSS) in relationship between psychological distress and sleep quality of college students. For this purpose, 480 questionnaires were issued to students from two colleges in Shaanxi, China. 443 (92.29%) of the questionnaires were returned. Then, the respondents were subject to depression anxiety stress survey (DASS-21), five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ), the PSS scale (PSSS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). The main conclusions are as follows: 25.5% of college students had sleep problems and the situation was worse for females; psychological distress had a significant effect on sleep quality and mindfulness, while mindfulness acted as a mediator between psychological distress and sleep quality; the PSS regulated the effect of mindfulness on the sleep quality, and mindfulness partially mediated those with low PSS; the mediation effect of mindfulness was insignificant for those with high PSS, and their sleep quality directly hinged on psychological distress. Therefore, the sleep quality among college students can be improved by promoting their mindfulness and PSS. This research provides new insights into the field of sleep quality.


Psychological distress; sleep quality; mindfulness; perceived social support (PSS); college students

Full Text:



Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J. Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment 2006; 13(1): 27-45.

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research 1989; 28(2):193-213.

Chang XD, Xue L. Correlation between Sleep Quality and Life Events for College Students. China Journal of Health Psychology 2017; 25(6): 940-44.

Chen Ml, Ai S, Wang W. Progress in Sleep Research. Chinese Journal of Drug Dependence 2016; 25(3): 323-30.

Christian HJ, Steven JS, Mark PZ. Secure and Defensive High Self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2003; 85(5): 969-78.

Deng YQ, Liu XH, Liang YJ. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-based Anti-depression Intervention for Depressive Participants. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 2010; 18(6): 813-16.

Duan WJ. Disagreements of Studies on Mindfulness: Conceptualization and Measurements. Advances in Psychological Science 2014; 22(10): 1616-27.

Gong X, Xie XY, Xu R, Luo YJ. Psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of DASS-21 in Chinese college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 2010; 18(4): 443-46.

Gu XY, Li H, Ding XQ. Effects of Mindfulness Training on Sleep Quality of Patients with Hypertension. Journal of Nursing Science 2014; 29(5): 27-29.

Guo SR, Wu SW, Feng XW. The Influence of Social Support on Sleep Quality: Evidence from Multiple Mediation Model. Psychological Science 2014; 37(6): 1404-08.

Jin M, Wang WL, Ding JX. Relationship between psychological disturbance and disease perception and hope level in patients with gastric cancer during chemotherapy. Guangdong Medical Journal 2015; 36(3): 447-50.

King AP, Erickson TM, Giardino ND, Favorite T, Rauch SA, Robinson E, Kulkarni M, Liberzon I. A pilot study of group mindfulness‐based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Depression and Anxiety 2013; 30(7):638-45.

Kong LM, Zhang LY, Zhang QJ. A Study on the relationship of Chinese Peoples Sleep Quality and Social Support and Its related factors. World Journal of Sleep Medicine 2014;1(2): 65-70.

Lan F, Jin YB, Sun WJ. Path Analysis of coping style and Depression Influencing Sleep Quality of Middle School Students. Psychological Research 2017; 4(3): 77-82.

Lei XX, Yu Y, Li X. Mindfulness training on patients with anxiety and depression after liver transplantation and sleep quality. Journal of Nurses Training 2016; 31(15): 1403-06.

Lıng XH, Xın ZQ. A cross-temporal meta-analysis of changes in Chinese college students' sleep quality. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2014;10:017.

Liu S. Some contemporary theoretical questions in sleep research. Acta Psychologica Sinica 1996;28(03):299-306.

Liu XC, Tang MQ, Hu L. Correlation among Anxiety, Depression and Sleep Quality in College Students. Chinese Mental Health Journal 1997; 1: 26-28.

Liu X, Tang M, Hu L. Reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Chinese Journal of Psychiatry 1996; 29:103-07.

Loviaond SH, Loviaond PF. Manual for depression, anxiety and stress scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation 1995: 112-118.

Luo XF, Mu SK. The Relationship between High School Students’ Gratitude and Psychological Well-Being: A Chain Mediating Effect of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Psychological Science 2017; 40(4): 878-84.

Niu JM, Zhang YT, Qiang JP. Study on Correlation between Depression and Sleep Quality in College Students. Modern Preventive Medicine 2017; 44(22): 4135-38.

Nordin M, Westerholm P, Alfredsson L, Åkerstedt T. Social support and sleep: Longitudinal relationships from the WOLF study. Psychology 2012; 3(12A):1223-30.

Shi SP, Xiong DY, Yan QR. Sleep Quality among College Students and Associated Factors. Chinese Journal of School Health 2013; 34(12): 1462-64.

Tang YY, Ma Y, Wang J, Fan Y, Feng S, Lu Q, Yu Q, Sui D, Rothbart MK, Fan M, Posner MI. Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2007; 104(43):17152-56.

Wang F, Huang YX. Psychological and neural mechanisms of mindfulness. Advances in Psychological Science 2011; 19(11):1635-44.

Watkins ED, Teasdale JD, Williams RM. Decentring and distraction reduce overgeneral autobiographical memory in depression. Psychological Medicine 2000; 30(4):911-20.

Xu XF. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation Training on Depression Status and Sleep Quality in Patients with Depression. Journal of Imaging Research and Medical Applications 2017; 1(16): 193-95.

Ye Y, Du GH, Fan F, LI LY. A Comparison of Sleep Quality and Influencing Factors between Young Soldiers and college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 2013; 21 (2): 313-16.

Zhang FM, Chen JW, Xu HJ. Sleep Quality and Its Influential Factors in College Students. The Journal of Medical Theory and Practice 2017; 30(16): 2471-73.

Zhao GF, Liu XC, Tang MQ. Study on Relationship between College Students' Sleep Quality and Mental Health. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 1995; 3(1): 26-28.

Zhao XJ, Wang LJ. Mindfulness Training to Improve Sleep Quality of Special Service Officers and Soldiers Observed. People's Military Surgeon 2017; 60(9): 851-53.

Zhu L, Zhuo MH. Positive Attribution and College Student’ Gratitude: the Mediating Effect of Perceived social support. Chinese Journal of Special Education 2015; 11: 79-82.

Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment. 1988; 52(1):30-41.

Supporting Agencies

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019