DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.8.1690

Culture, the Silver Mean and Nuclear Pore Complexes

John Gardiner


The Golden Mean (or Golden Ratio) is well known for its appearance of beauty in art and beyond. The closely related Silver Mean less so. Yet it is important in art, architecture and religion. The Silver Mean and octagons are linked, with octagons possessing various properties based around the Silver Mean. Nuclear Pore Complexes are octagonal protein complexes linking the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. They cluster in both tetragonal and hexagonal aggregates. Hexagonal clustering of octagonal subunits should be geometrically forbidden. Thus, here, is an instance of a protein quasicrystal. I suggest that the octagonal Nuclear Pore Complexes are part of a universal fractal which results in the Silver Mean being expressed in its various forms in human culture.


Consciousness, Fractal, Golden Ratio, Nuclear Pore Complex, Quasicrystal, Silver Ratio

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