DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.12.1876

Determining the Internal and External Reliability of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in Assessing Psychological Symptoms Among Patients with Tinnitus

Wan Suhailah Wan Husain, Azizah Othman, Nik Adilah Nik Othman, Wan Najibah Wan Mohamad, Mohd Normani Zakaria

Abstract


Tinnitus (“ringing noise in the ear”) is prevalent among adults with ear diseases. Psychological symptoms have been reported in many patients with tinnitus and research in this aspect is much relevant. The aim of the present study was to determine the internal and external reliability of Malay version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (BM DASS-21) in documenting psychological symptoms among patients with tinnitus. In this validation study, the BM DASS-21 was administered to 28 eligible Malay adults (14 males and 14 females) with main complaint of tinnitus, aged between 23 and 74 years (mean of 52.9 ± 12.8 years). After two weeks, they were instructed asked to fill in the questionnaire again. As revealed, the internal reliability of BM DASS-21 was found to be robust. Specifically, its Cronbach’s alpha values were excellent for Depression subscale (α = 0.92) and Stress subscale (α = 0.87). A good alpha value was noted for Anxiety subscale (α = 0.79). All the three subscales were significantly inter-correlated with each other (r > 0.70, p < 0.05). The test-retest (external) reliability of BM DASS-21 was found to be excellent (intraclass correlation = 0.77-0.88). In conclusion, given its high reliability, the BM DASS-21 can be used conveniently to assess psychological symptoms among patients with the complaint of tinnitus. It may guide clinicians in understanding the patients’ psychological state, so that proper management can take place.

Keywords


DASS-21, Tinnitus, Psychological symptoms, Reliability,

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andersson G. Tinnitus loudness matchings in relation to annoyance and grading of severity. Auris Nasus Larynx 2003; 30(2): 129-33.

Antony M, Bieling PJ, Cox BJ, Enns MW, Swinson RP. Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and community a sample. Psychological Assessment 1998; 10(2): 176-81.

Bradley C. Handbook of psychology and diabetes: A guide to psychological measurement in diabetes research and practice. Harwood, 1994.

Cicchetti DV. Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment 1994; 6(4): 284-90.

Gomaa MAM, Elmagd MHA, Elbadry MM, Kader RMA. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 2014; 271(8): 2177-84.

Henry JA, Dennis KC, Schechter MA. General review of tinnitus: prevalence, mechanisms, effects, and management. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 2005; 48(5): 1204-35.

Henry JA, McMillan G, Dann S, Bennett K, Griest S, Theodoroff S, Silverman SP, Whichard S, Saunders G. Tinnitus Management: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Extended-Wear Hearing Aids, Conventional Hearing Aids, and Combination Instruments. Journal of American Academy of Audiology 2017; 28(6): 546-61.

Hiller W, Goebel G. Factors influencing tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 2006; 132(12): 1323-30.

Hodgson SA, Herdering R, Singh Shekhawat G, Searchfield GD. A crossover trial comparing wide dynamic range compression and frequency compression in hearing aids for tinnitus therapy. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 2017; 12(1): 97-103.

Jastreboff PJ. Phantom auditory perception (tinnitus): mechanisms of generation and perception. Neuroscience Research 1990; 8(4): 221-54.

Kennedy V, Wilson C, Stephens D. Quality of life and tinnitus. Audiological Medicine 2004; 2(1): 29-40.

Krog NH, Engdahl B, Tambs K. The association between tinnitus and mental health in a general population sample: results from the HUNT Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2010; 69(3): 289-98.

Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Psychology Foundation, 1995.

Meikle M, Taylor-Walsh E. Characteristics of tinnitus and related observations in over 1800 tinnitus clinic patients. Journal of Laryngology and Otology Supplement 1984; 9: 17-21.

Nondahl DM, Cruickshanks KJ, Huang GH, Klein BE, Klein R, Nieto FJ, Tweed TS. Tinnitus and its risk factors in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. International Journal of Audiology 2011; 50(5): 313-20.

Ramli M, Mohd Arif F, Zaini Z. Translation, validation and psychometric properties of Bahasa Malaysia version of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS). ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry 2007; 8(2): 82-9.

Ramli M, Salmiah M.A, Nurul Ain M. Validation and psychometric properties of Bahasa Malaysia version of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) among diabetic patients. Malaysian Journal of Psychiatry 2009; 18(2): 1-6.

Roberts LE, Eggermont JJ, Caspary DM, Shore SE, Melcher JR, Kaltenbach JA. Ringing ears: the neuroscience of tinnitus. Journal of Neuroscience 2010; 30(45): 14972-9.

Santos RM, Sanchez TG, Bento RF, Lucia MC. Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 2012; 16(3): 322-7.

Scott B, Lindberg P. Psychological profile and somatic complaints between help-seeking and non-help-seeking tinnitus subjects. Psychosomatics 2000; 41(4): 347-52.

Shargorodsky J, Curhan GC, Farwell WR. Prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus among US adults. American Journal of Medicine 2010; 123(8): 711-8.

Silva HA, Passos MH, Oliveira VM, Palmeira AC, Pitangui AC, Araújo RC. Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents? Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2016; 14(4): 486-93.

Timothy AB, Bruce FC, William K, David HB. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1997; 35(1): 79-89.

Tyler RS, Baker LJ. Difficulties experienced by tinnitus sufferers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 1983; 48(2): 150-4.

Vernon JA, Meikle MB. Measurement of tinnitus: An update. In: Kitahara M, editor. Tinnitus: pathophysiology and management. Igaku-Shoin Ltd, 1988, p. 36-52.

Wallhäußer-Franke E, Brade J, Balkenhol T, D'Amelio R, Seegmüller A, Delb W. Tinnitus: distinguishing between subjectively perceived loudness and tinnitus-related distress. PLoS One 2012; 7(4): e34583.

Zöger S, Svedlund J, Holgers KM. Relationship between tinnitus severity and psychiatric disorders. Psychosomatics 2006; 47(4): 282-8.


Supporting Agencies

Ministry of Education Malaysia



| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2018