An Investigation into The Effect of Cognitive- Existential Therapy on The Rumination of Women Affected by Male Infidelity
Materials and Methods: This single case experimental study used an Non Concurrent Multiple Baseline design. The study population included all couples affected by male infidelity referring to Ahvaz's private and public counseling centers. Given the inclusion and exclusion criteria, oral interviews and women who scored higher than 55 in the rumination scale, 3 couples were selected targeted sampling and received therapy. Accordingly, 8 sessions of cognitive therapy were held individually once a week and each session lasted 90 minutes. The research tool was Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow Rumination Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using visual analysis (chart drawing) and clinical significance.
Findings: According to the findings, women showed increased rumination (36.65%) and improved therapy (45.3%) in the follow-up phases. The findings showed that t was bigger than the table with a degree of freedom of 31. Therefore, it can be argued that normal and abnormal groups are not clinically different in terms of the variable of rumination. Therefore, cognitive therapy is able to decrease the rumination of women affected by the male infidelity.
Conclusion: The results showed that cognitive therapy sessions can be decrease the rumination of women affected by male infidelity. Therefore, this therapy can be used to reduce the psychological suffering of women affected by male infidelity and improve the relationships in private and public counseling centers.
Aghajani MJ, Akbari B, Khalatbari J, Sadighi A. Effectiveness of Group Logo therapy on Symptoms of love Trauma and Emotion Cognitive Regulation of the Girls suffering from Emotional Failure. Armaghane-danesh 2018; 23(4): 413-427.
Bagherinejad M, Salehi FG, Tabatabaei M. Relation between rumination and depression in a sample of Iranian students. Educational and psychology studies 2010; 11(1): 21-38 (Article in Persian)
Bahmani B, Motamed Najjar M, Sayyah M, Shafi-Abadi A, Haddad Kashani H. Effectiveness of cognitive-existential group therapy on increasing hope and decreasing depression in women-treated with hemodialysis. Global Journal of Health Science 2016; 8(6): 219-225.
Barnhofer T, Crane C, Hargus E, Amarasinghe M, Winder R, Williams M. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study. Behavior Research and Therapy 2009; 4: 366â€“373.
Bashar Pour S. Effectiveness of cognitive proses therapy on improvement of post-traumatic symptom, quality of life, self-steam and marital satisfaction of women affected by marital infidelity. Family counseling and psychotherapy 2012; 2(2): 193-208 (Article in Persian).
Baucom DH, Snyder DK, Gordon KC. Helping couples get past the affair: a clinicianâ€™s guide, New York: Guilford Press 2009; pp: 111-112.
Brown EM. Patterns of infidelity and their treatment. New York: Taylor & Francis Group, Brunner Rutledge 2013; pp: 221-222.
Collins AL, Love AW, Bloch S, Street AF, Duchesne GM, Dunai J, Cooper JW. Cognitive Existential Couple Therapy for newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients and their partners: a descriptive pilot study. Psych oncology 2011; 22(2): 465-469.
Cooper J, Collins A, Bloch S, Street A, Duchesne G, Jones T, Olver J, Love A. Cognitive existential couple therapy in men and partners facing localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. BJU International 2015; 115(5): 35-45.
Esere MO, Yeyeodu A, Oladun C. Obstacles and suggested solutions to effective communication in marriage as expressed by married adults in Kogi state, Nigeria. Journal of Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2014; 114: 584-592.
Eskandari M, Bahmani B, Hasani F, Shafi-Abadi A, Hossein Pour A. Cognitive-Existential Group therapy on hopefulness of parent with children having cancer. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal 2013; 11(18): 51-55.
Eslami F, Saravani MR, Kianpur M. Effectiveness of cognitive existential therapy on reducing depression and improvement in quality of life in opiate addicts undergoing methadone-maintenance treatment. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2014; 4(S4): 652-658.
Farmani-Shahreza Sh, Bahmani B, Ghaedniay-Jahromi A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Khanjani S. Effectiveness of cognitive-existential therapy on the demoralization syndrome in women with HIV. Clinical Psychology 2016; 8(1): 11-24 (Article in Persian).
Ghamari Givi H and Hosseini Kiasari ST. Effectiveness of cognitive-existential group therapy on hopelessness in patients with multiple sclerosis. Daneshvar Medicine 2014; 21(112): 1-11 (Article in Persian).
Habib S. Translated: Existential psychotherapy. yalom E mediator. 11th ed. Tehran: Ney Publishing 2017; pp: 270-273.
Hamidpour H and Andouz Z. translated: Cognitive therapy techniques, a practical guide for clinical specialists Leihi R mediator. 4th ed. Tehran: Arjmand Publishing 2015; pp: 245-246.
Hertlein M, Wetchler S, Piercy P. Infidelity: An overview. The Haworth press, Inc: 2005.
Honar Parvaran N. Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on marital forgiveness and compatibility in womenâ€™s affected by spouse infidelity. Woman and Society 2014; 5(2): 135-150 (Article in Persian).
Jeanfreau MM. A qualitative study investigating the decision-making process of womenâ€™s participation in marital infidelity. An abstract of a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree doctor of philosophy. University of Manhattan, Kansas 2009; pp: 7-8.
Karimi J, Sodani M, Mehrabizade M, Neisi AK. Comparison of the efficacy of integrative couple therapy and emotionally focused couple therapy on symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms caused by extra-marital relations in couples. Clinical Psychology 2013; 5 (3): 35-46 (Article in Persian).
Kissane D. Beyond the psychotherapy and survival debate: the challenge of social disparity, depression and treatment adherence in psychosocial cancer care. Psych oncology 2009; 1: 1-5.
Kissane DW, Bloch S, Miach P, Smith GC. Seddon A. Keks N. Cognitive existential group therapy for patients with primary breast cancer. Psycho oncology 1997; 6(1): 25-33.
Kissane DW, Bloch S, Smith GC, Miach P, Clarke DM, Ikin J, Love A, Ranieri N, McKenzie D. Cognitiveâ€existential group psychotherapy for women with primary breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Psychoâ€Oncology: Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer 2003; 12(6): 532-546.
Kissane DW. Clark DM. Demoralization: its phenomenology and importance. Australian and New Zealand Psychiatry 2002; 36: 733-742.
Knight A. Gender differences in defining infidelity. A Thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree master of arts 2010; pp: 55-56.
Mumurdere M and Saks K. Impact of negative affectivity on quality of life and relationship fulfillment in Estonia. Journal of Research in Personality 2006; 39(3): 336-353.
Murata H and Morita T. Conceptualization of psycho-existential suffering by the Japanese task force: the first step of a nationwide project. Palliat Support Care 2006; 4(3): 279-285.
Nazare B, Fonseca A, Gameiro SM. Amniocentesis due to advanced maternal age: The role of marital intimacy in couplesâ€™ decision-making process. Contemporary Family Therapy 2011; 33: 128â€“142.
Nolen-Hoeksema S and Harrell ZA. Rumination depression and alcohol use: Tests of gender differences. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An Imitational Journal 2002; 16: 391-404.
Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspective Psychological Science 2008; 3(5): 400â€“424.
Nolen-Hoeksema S. The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety depressive symptom. Abnorm Psychol 2000; 109(3): 504-511.
Pakniya N, Bahmani B, Dadkhah A, Azimian M, Naghiyaee M, Masudi Sani R. Effectiveness of Cognitive Existential Approach on Decreasing Demoralization in Women with Multiple Sclerosis. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal 2015; 13(4): 28-33.
Peluso PR. Infidelity: A practitioner's guide to working with couples in crisis. New York, NY: Rutledge 2007; pp: 59-60.
Rajabi GR, Naderi Nobandegani Z, Amanelahi A, Shehni yeilagh M. Effectiveness of systemic-constructivist couple therapy on interpersonal processing, mutuality, relationship closeness distressed couples. Psychology Methods and Models 2015; 6(21): 105-128.
Sedaghat F, Rafieipour A, Samavi A. comprison of rumination in students with and withgout hit love syndrome in Bandar Abbas city. New advance in behavioral science 2016; 3(1): 75-81 (Article in Persian).
Sodani M, Shogaeyan M, Khojastamhr R, Shiralinia Kh. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Couple Therapy on Communication Patterns and Intimacy of Couples Referring to Counseling Centers of Behbahan, Iran. Armaghane-danesh 2017; 22 (4): 499-514.
Stefano JD and Oala M. Extramarital affairs: Basic considerations and essential tasks in clinical work. Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families 2012; 16(1): 13-19.