DOI: 10.14704/nq.2014.12.3.759

Measurement Complexity and Oracle Quantum Computing

Subhash Kak

Abstract


This paper explores the problem of quantum measurement complexity. In computability theory, the complexity of a problem is determined by how long it takes an effective algorithm to solve it. This complexity may be compared to the difficulty for a hypothetical oracle machine, the output of which may be verified by a computable function but cannot be simulated on a physical machine. We define a quantum oracle machine for measurements as one that can determine the state by examining a single copy. The complexity of measurement for a realizable machine will then be respect to the number of copies of the state that needs to be examined. A quantum oracle cannot perform simultaneous exact measurement of conjugate variables, although approximate measurement may be performed as circumscribed by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. When considering the measurement of a variable, there might be residual uncertainty if the number of copies of the variable is limited. Specifically, we examine the quantum measurement complexity of linear polarization of photons that is used in several quantum cryptography schemes and we present a relation using information theoretic arguments. The idea of quantum measurement complexity is likely to find uses in measurements in biological systems.

Keywords


quantum measurement; complexity; measurement; quantum oracle

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Supporting Agencies

This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation grant CNS-1117068.



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