DOI: 10.14704/nq.2016.14.4.983

Human Conscious Experience is Four-Dimensional and has a Neural Correlate Modeled by Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity

Richard Allen Sieb

Abstract


In humans, knowing the world occurs through spatial-temporal experiences and interpretations. Conscious experience is the direct observation of conscious events. It makes up the content of consciousness. Conscious experience is organized in four dimensions. It is an orientation in space and time and an understanding of the position of the observer in space and time. A neural correlate for four-dimensional conscious experience has been found in the human brain which is modeled by Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. Spacetime intervals are fundamentally involved in the organization of coherent conscious experiences. They account for why conscious experience appears to us the way it does. They also account for assessment of causality and past-future relationships, the integration of higher cognitive functions, and the implementation of goal-directed behaviors. Spacetime intervals in effect compose and direct our conscious life. The relativistic concept closes the explanatory gap and solves the hard problem of consciousness (how something subjective like conscious experience can arise in something physical like the brain). There is a place in physics for consciousness. We describe all physical phenomena through conscious experience, whether they be described at the quantum level or classical level. Since spacetime intervals direct the formation of all conscious experiences and all physical phenomena are described through conscious experience, the equation formulating spacetime intervals contains the information from which all observable phenomena may be deduced. It might therefore be considered expression of a theory of everything.

Keywords


conscious experience; time; space; four-dimensional; relativity; spacetime interval

Full Text:

Full Text PDF

References


Atkinson RL, Atkinson RC and Smith EE. Introduction to Psychology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1990; 177-183.

Bernstein DA. Essentials of Psychology. Cengage Learning 2010; 123-124.

Bohr N. Niels Bohr, Collected Works, Vol.3, The Correspondence Principle (1918-1923). North-Holland, Amsterdam 1976.

Buzsáki G. Rhythms of the Brain. Oxford University Press 2006.

Carlip S. Quantum gravity: A progress report. Reports on Progress in Physics 2001; 64(8): 885.

Coon D and Mitterer JO. Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning 2008; 171-172.

Corsini RJ. The Dictionary of Psychology. Psychology Press 2002; 219.

Cummins DD. Neural correlates of causal power judgments. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2014; 8: 1014. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.01014

Disalle R. Space and Time: Inertial Frames. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition), E.N. Zalta (Ed.) 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2002/entries/spacetime-iframes/#Oth

Doeller CF, Barry C and Burgess N. Evidence for grid cells in a human memory network. Nature 2010; 463{7281}: 657–661.

Eichenbaum H. Time cells in the hippocampus: a new dimension for mapping memories. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2014; 15: 732-744.

Einstein A. Relativity: The Special and the General Theory (Reprint of 1920 translation by Robert W. Lawson), Routledge 2001.

Enriquez-Geppert S, Huster RJ, Figge C and Herrmann CS. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta memory updating and mental set shifting. Frontiers; 2014; 8: 420. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00420

Feynman RP. Six Not-So-Easy Pieces: Einstein’s Relativity, Symmetry, and Space-Time. Basic Books, New York 1998.

Gabriele JD and Kao Y. Development of the declarative memory system in the human brain. Nature Neuroscience 2007; 10: 1198-1205.

Gabriele JD and Desmond JE. The role of left prefrontal cortex in learning and memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 1998; 95(3): 906-913.

Goldstein EB. Sensation and Perception. Cengage Learning 2009.

Gray PO. Psychology, 5th ed.. Worth, New York 2006: 281.

Gregary R. Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford 1987; 598-601.

Hafting T, Fyhn M, Molden S, Moser M-B and Moser EI. Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature 2005; 436(7052): 801–806.

Hossenfelder S. Lost in thought. How important to physics was Einstein’s imaginings? Scientific American 2015; 313(3).

Isaacson W. How Einstein discovered general relativity amid war, divorce and rivalry. Scientific American 2015; 313(3).

Jaeger G. What in the (quantum) world is macroscopic? American Journal of Physics 2014; 82(9); 896-905.

Janowski JS, Shimamura AP and Squire LT. Source memory impairment in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia 1989; 27(8): 1043-1056.

Jeffery K. Integration of sensory inputs to place cells: What, where, why, and how? Hippocampus 2007; 17(9): 775–785.

Jeffery K, Anderson M, Hayman R and Chakraborty S. A proposed architecture for the neural representation of spatial context. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 2003; 28: 201–218.

Johnson JD, Suzuki M and Rugg MD. Recollection, familiarity and content sensitivity in lateral parietal cortex: A high-resolution fMRI study. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; 7: 209. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00219

Joseph R. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Clinical Neuroscience. Academic Press, New York 1990, 2000.

Koch C. Two natural philosophers, centuries apart, converse about the mind. Scientific American Mind 2015; 26(2): 28-31.

Kushner LH. Contrast in judgements of mental health. ProQuest 2008; 1.

Lara AH and Wallis JD. The role of prefrontal cortex in working memory: A mini review. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 2015; 9(173).doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00173

Lubenov EV and Siapas AG. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves. Nature 2009; 459(7246): 534.

Lucas JR and Hodgson PE. Space, Time and Causality: An Essay in Natural Philosophy, Oxford University Press 1985.

MacDonald CJ, Lepage KQ, Eden UT and Eichenbaum H. Hippocampal “time cells” bridge the gap in memory for discontiguous events. Neuron 2011; 71: 737–749.

Maniadakis M and Trahanias P. Temporal cognition: A key ingredient of intelligent systems. Frontiers in Neurorobotics 2011; 5(2). doi: 10.3389/fnbot.2011.00002

Mansouri FA, Rosa MGB and Atapour N. Working memory in the service of executive control functions. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 2015; 9(166).doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00166

Maurer AP, Vanrhoads SR, Sutherland GR, Lipa P and McNaughton BL. Self-motion and the origin of differential spatial scaling along the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus. Hippocampus 2005; 15(7): 841–852.

Morin D. Introduction to Classical Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, New York 2008.

Moser MB and Moser EI. Functional differentiation in the hippocampus. Hippocampus 1998; 8(6): 608–19.

Munoz-Lopez MM, Mohedano-Moriano A and Insausti R. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory in primates. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 2010; 4(129).doi: 10.3389/fnana.2010.00129

Nelson SM, McDermott KB, Wig GS, Schlagger BL and Petersen SE. The critical roles of localization and physiology for understanding parietal contributions to memory retrieval. Neuroscientist 2013; 19: 578-591.

O'Keefe DJ. Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat. Experimental Neurology 1976; 51(1): 78–109.

O'Keefe J and Dostrovsky J. The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Research 1971; 34(1): 171–175.

O'Keefe J and Nadel L. The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford University Press, 1978.

Penrose R. The Road to Reality. Vintage Books, London 2005.

Petkov V. Minkowski Spacetime: A Hundred Years Later. Springer, Berlin 2010.

Popper AN. Music Perception. Springer 2010; 150.

Priest SH. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Communication. SAGE Publications 2010.

Rolls ET. The mechanisms for pattern completion and pattern separation in the hippocampus. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 2013; 7(74).doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00074

Roberts T and Schleif S. What is the experimental basis of special relativity? Usenet Physics FAQ 2007.

Schacter DL, Gilbert DT and Wegner DM. Semantic and episodic memory. Psychology, 2nd Ed., 240-241. Worth Incorporated, New York, 2011.

Serino S and Riva G. What is the role of spatial processing in the decline of episodic memory in Alzheimer’s disease? The “mental frame syncing” hypothesis. Frontiers of Aging Neuroscience 2014; 6(33).doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00033

Sieb RA. The emergence of consciousness. Medical Hypotheses 2004; 63(5): 900-904.

Sieb RA. The emergence of emotion. Activitas Nervosa Superior 2013; 55(4): 115-145.

Sieb RA. Memory in four dimensions. In: M.Sakakibara & I.Etsuro (Eds.), Memory Consolidation, Chapter 13, 259-313. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2015.

Sieb RA. Four-Dimensional Consciousness. relativisticconsciousness.com 2016.

Steinvorth S, Levine B and Corkin S. Medial temporal lobe structures are needed to re-experience remote autobiographical memories: evidence from H.M. and W.R.. Neuropsychologia 2005; 43: 479–496.

Sumner B. The effect of experience on the perception and representation of dialect variants. Journal of Memory and Language. Elsevier Inc. 2009.

Tipler P and Llewellyn R. Modern Physics (5th ed.). W.E. Freeman Company 2008; 160-161.

Tulving E. Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford University Press, New York, 1983.

Ullman MT. Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition 2004; 92: 231–270.

Uncapher MR and Wagner AD. Posterior parietal cortex and episodic encoding. Insights from fMRI subsequent memory effects and dual-attention theory. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory 2005; 91: 139-154.

Wagner AD, Shannon BJ, Hahn I and Buckner RL. Parietal lobe contributions to episodic memory retrieval. Trends in Cognitive Science 2005; 9: 445-453.

Weinberg S. Dreams of a Final Theory: The Scientists Search for the Ultimate Laws of Nature. Knopt Doubleday Publishing Group 1993.

Weiten W. Psychology: Themes and Variations, 8th ed., Wadsworth/Cengage Learning 2010.

Wendelken C. Meta-analysis: how does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning? Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2015; 8(1042). doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.01042

Wolfe JM, Kluender KR, Levi DM, Bartochuk LM, Herz RS, Klatsky RL and Lederman SJ. Gestalt grouping principles. Sensation and Perception (2nd ed.). Sinauer Associates 2008; 78-80.


Supporting Agencies

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.



| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2018