Volume 20 No 22 (2022)
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Institutional Deprivation - a risk factor for neuro-developmental disorders
Dr Harshita Agarwal, Dr Rajpreet Soni
Neurodevelopment disorders (NDDs) are complex conditions which arise in childhood but can last throughout life. It includes conditions like attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), specific learning disorders, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and communication disorders (Thapar, et al., 2017). These disorders have long been studied in relation to institutional deprivation and have resulted in deprivation-specific problems (DSPs). This is because institutional deprivation results in reduced social interaction, cognitive stimulation, language development and forming attachments (Nelson, 2007) which lead to NDDs. The age and length of institutionalisation together with environmental features of the institution seem to affect the level of deprivation in children, making this heterogenous concept a risk factor for NDDs. Moreover, the role of genetics, pre-institutional and prenatal environmental factors can also aid the occurrence of NDDs which challenges the results of literature provided on institutional deprivation as a risk factor. As a risk factor, institutional deprivation accentuates NDDs among children.
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